vrijdag 10 mei 2013

Egyptians and Phoenicians


When Wen Amon around 1075 BC representing the pharaoh of Egypt in the South arrives in Byblos, there appear to be no more tributes to exist and Wen Amon just has to buy his desired products (wood) at the palace of Zakarbaäl.

At the time of the coming three golden ages for Phoenicia, the economic relationship with Egypt stays more or less intact, but politically it is much less dependent on the large country on the Nile.

Only when the Assyrians finally leave their mark on the Phoenician city states, then the economic relationship is at risk. The cultural relationship will always remain intact. We come across the Egyptian gods everywhere. On objects we find uraei, sphinxes, ankh-signs, dishes (with pictures of the Pharaoh) and scarabs.

From c.750 BC Phoenicia deforms more and more into an Assyrian province. The contacts with Egypt are never completely broken, despite Assyrian forbidden to trade on Egypt. Really some actually help can Egypt not give, despite some half-hearted attempts. On the contrary, even lower Egypt comes a time under Assyrian domination.

Psammetichos I (664-610) liberated Egypt back of the Assyrians, and his name as Psamtik-nefer shows up at a statue Arvad. Under Necho, the ties with Phoenicia are largely restored. The Phoenicians are involved in digging a canal between the Nile and the Red Sea. By order of the Pharaoh Phoenicians would have circumvented the continent of Africa in three years. In Memphis a Tyrisch camp is founded.

Psamtik II (595-589) uses Phoenician help in his expedition to the land of Kusj in the south. During the philhellenic Apries (588-568) is vainly attempted to drive out the New- Babylonians from Phoenicia.
Meanwhile, the Greek influence in Egypt is increasing. In the 16th year of Amasis (568-526) the Greek factory Naukratis is established.
In 529 the Phoenicians also again take part in an expedition to the south.
Then comes powerful Persia and Egypt and Phoenicia become part of the Persian Empire.

In the war against the Greeks, Egyptians and Phoenicians stand side by side under one Persian umbrella. The sea-fighting and land-battles of Lade, Marathon, Artemision, Salamis, Eurymedon, Nile Delta and Kition pull over.
In Phoenicia, both the Egyptian and Persian influence is clearly visible on a stele of Yehawmilk of Byblos.
In the 4th century BC show the efforts by Egypt to liberate itself increasingly with Greek aid of the Persian occupation. That will not be final until the arrival of Alexander the Great. Then, however, in any case, the political role of the native Egypt and Phoenicia is finished. It becomes part of the Hellenistic world and that is also increasingly visible in cultural terms.

Literature: 34.2.2.La mission d’Ounamon en Phénicie point de vue d’un non-Egyptologue, G.Bunnens – Bruxelles. RSF VI 1978.
The relations between Egypt and Phoenicia have been very long and were often been intensive. It is noteworthy that between the two worlds never a real direct war raged, except for one small exception under a philhellenistic pharaoh. The Phoenicians and their predecessors, let the army of Pharaoh quietly pulling through their country and put themselves never in a defensive position.
Allowed the pharaoh quietly take its course on his way to the real enemies. Phoenicia was usually the ally of Egypt. Just outside-forces compel sometimes a little less or more pulling together.
So it was generally a peaceful relationship, which was especially marked by economic and cultural agreements. Philo of Byblos comes in the 1st century AD therefore to the otherwise somewhat exaggerated conclusion that Phoenicia and Egypt, have been the two great civilizations, to which mankind owes almost everything there is.