zaterdag 25 juni 2016


Site on the Nile in Egypt. Ruins of the city of pharaoh Akhetaten (c.1352-1336 B.C). Finding place of 382 tablets (up to the year 2000) in cuneiform script, who are describing the quarrels in Canaan in the 14th century B.C. during the reigns of the paraohs Amenophis III and IV and of Tutankhamon. Most of the tablets contains letters from persons in Canaan to the pharaoh. Letter 101 is particularly importance, because for the first time non-Egyptian ships were used in attacks by a mysterious people: the Mi-lim and also by the people of Arwada. Although it is just before the time, that we are going to speak of the Phoenicians, this is very curious and peculiar.
Tablet 101 is made by a man in Gubla (Byblos) to a high Egyptian official or even the pharaoh himself. The beginning of the letter is missing. The communication starts with the statement, that Haia is an enemy of the pharaoh. Then the Mi-Lim people and the ships of Arwada are mentioned. It seems, that the Mi-lim are an independent people, probably of an island and sea-faring. The people of Arwada seem to have been allied with the sons of Abdi-AĊĦirta of Amurru towards Gubla.

woensdag 22 juni 2016

Maritime Tharros


In 1984 there were no traces found of port constructions which could do justice to the commercial and naval needs of the city. Several suggestions were done such as: 1) a drastic sea level change, 2) a natural harbour or 3) location of a harbour to the SE of Giovanni di Sinis. All those suggestions could not be proved. Finally in 1985 a premature solution was found. Special attention was directed to a “sea wall” which was explored offshore from the SE slopes of the Tophet Hill. This structure proved to be over 120 m in length and, at several points, up to 9 m in width. The wall was made of rectangular shaped blocks, measuring on the average 20 x 30 x 60 cm. A deeper stratum of stones was found underneath the first. It consisted of rectangular blocks measuring about 120 x 50 cm.
The “sea wall” runs parallel to the coastline for over 120 meters and turns at both ends on a slight angle towards the shore. Such a structure could have functioned as a breakwater enclosing a body of water to form a protected harbour.

See: RSF XV 1987, E.Linder, Haifa.