It is a very critical issue. Few researchers therefore dare to publish about it.
Nowadays we can rely on years of recorded statistics. However, from the time when the Phoenicians and Punic people lived only a few fragmentary data on the size of cities, the strength of armies and fleets and the like are available. Furthermore, these data are not always reliable.
When on paper something about the demographics can be put, which then must be done mainly through indications. For example, what is the area of a city, or the size of the fleet, which has a city or better still serviceable. Even better is when a combination of indicators can be presented. Detours through such a figure can then be budgeted, but not adopted. It remains budgeting and estimating, because exact numbers are difficult or impossible to give.
In summary can be used, for example, the following inputs for population approaches:
- Ancient sources used in perspective;
- Scale armies and fleets to convert populations;
- Convert traced settlements to population numbers;
- Areas of cities and areas to convert populations;
- Use for correction archaeological data;
- Take everything into account a possible share of mixture-population or the possible share of mercenaries or occupation-forces.
I made such a calculation with a lot of questionable assumptions. Everyone can make that and that will give every time different results.