maandag 10 november 2014

Phoenicians in Abydos

ABYDOS – Abedjoe


There is only one large conglomerate of graffiti known on the temple of Osiris in the 5th – 3rd century BC.  CIS I 99-101 Eph.III 93-116 KAI 49. Abydos is located c.100 km northwest of Thebe. There are temples of Osiris, Seti I, Ramses II and cenotaph temples. It contains the oldest cemeteries of Egypt. Between the 5th and 3rd century BC Phoenician people marked their presence with graffiti. They came from Arwad, Kition, Tyrus and Heliopolis. We know now also some professions: sailors, musician, plasterer, interpreter, spice-trader, cultivator of date-palm trees, carpenter and servants.

49 graffiti and 78 personal names.

Name x = the father
           |                                         ph: Phoenician
Name y = the son
            |                                        pu: punic
Name z = the grandson


1. bd?mqrr                  ?


2. Ṣnr                          (vocalisation and meaning uncertain)  the sailors (Benz p.177) ph,pu

      |                             (Krahmalkov p.418). This is the father.


    ----- dn                    ?  the sailors. This is the son.


4. ’šmnšlk                   ’Ešmunšillek (Esmun save me) (Benz p.73, Krahmalkov p.84)


5. mlk                         meaning: king, but it could be a part of a personal name.


6. b‘lskr                      Ba‘al-Sakor (Ba‘al remember him/me/you) (Benz p.96,

                                   Krahmalkov p.117) ph.


7. b‘lytn                      Ba‘al-yaton (Baal grant!). Exceedlingly common. Musician on

      |                             tympano. (Benz p.177, Krahmalkov p.408) pu.


    psr                           misspelling for pšr (vocalisation and meaning uncertain). (Benz p.177)

                                    (Krahmalkov p.408) pu. In Egyptische taal: the Prince? (Ranke II 189).


 8. [.]ḥšq                     ?


     ‘bdršp                    ‘Abdrešef (servant of Rešef) (Benz p.163) CIS I 93.4, 2628. RES 1353.

                                                                                  1357, 1360. Krug.27.2.


9. ‘z’                           ?


10. prsy                       Parsay (vocalisation and meaning uncertain) (Benz p.176,

                                                           Kramalkov p.407) ph,pu.


11. ‘zrtb‘l                    ‘Izrati-ba‘al (Baal is help). (Benz p.170, Krahmalkov p.365)

        |                                                                          Cis I 88, RES 1309


       ‘bdssm                 ‘Abd-Sasom (servant of Sasom) (Benz p.162, Krahmalkov p.357)


12. b‘lytn                    Ba‘al-yaton (Baal grant!). Exceedlingly common.

      |                             (Benz p.177, Krahmalkov p.408) pu.


      Mnḥm                   Meneḥḥem (comforter). (Benz p.141, Krahmalkov p.294) pu

                                                           Perhaps a hebrew influence ?


13. šlm                                    ? Salom, Sallum, Sillem. He comes from Kition. Meaning: peace.

      |                                        (Several names may be encompassed by the spelling šlm.

      |                                        (Benz p.180, Krahmalkov p.464) ph, pu.

      ‘bd’šmn                ‘Abd-’Esmun (servant of Esmun). Exceedingly common. A lot of

                                               misspellings with this name. Historical person: Abdeshmun

                                               DCPP 2-3 (Benz p.150-153, Krahmalkov p.354).


14. gr’hl                      Ger-‘Ohel (fearer of ’Ohel) (Benz p.103, Krahmalkov p.142) ph.


15. b‘lpls                     Ba‘al-pilles (Baal save him/me/you) (Benz p.97, Krahmalkov p.117)

      |                                                    ph. Pu.


     Yḥlb‘l                    ?


16. grhkl                     Ger-Hêkal (Fearer of Hêkal) (Benz p.104, Krahmalkov p.143) ph

      |                             He is a plasterer / stucco-worker


      Bnḥdš                   Bin-ḥodeš (son of the new moon) (Benz 89. Krahmalkov p.106) pu


17. ’gn?                      Vocalisation and meaning uncertain (Krahmalkov p.31). He is an

      |                                        Interpreter / translator.


     ’bnšmš                   ? abonšemeš (stone of the sun??). Perhaps a misspelling for ’bnn, of

      |                                        whom the vocalisation and meaning are uncertain.

      |                                        For ’bnn see: Krahmalkov p.29


     ‘bdršp                    ‘abdrešef (servant of Resef). (Benz p.163) CIS I 93.4, 2628. RES 1353.

                                                                                  1357, 1360. Krug.27.2.


18. mlqrt‘ms               milqart-‘amos (Milqart support him/me/you). (Benz 141,

       |                                                   Krahmalkov p.292). ph,pu. A common name.


      ‘bdmlkt                 ‘Abd-Milkot (servant of Milkot) (Benz 155, Krahmalkov p.356) ph, pu.

       |                                       Contradictions and many misspellings. Exceedingly common.


      ‘bdṢpl                   ? ‘AbdṢpl (servant of Ṣpl?). perhaps ‘bdṢapon (Benz p.163)

                                                                                  A misreading?

19. ‘bqm                     ?. Completely unknown, but he is a servant of ḥpn.


      Gr’                                    Gera (short form of the name-type gr-DN)  (Benz p 103-104,

                                   Krahmalkov p.142) ph,pu. Worshipper of a god.


20. pls.                                    Pilles- (shortform of the name-type pls-DN (DN save him/me!).

                                   (Benz p.176, Krahmalkov p.397). Historical person: Phelles DCPP 348.

                                   There is letter after pls, but what is unknown.


21. bnb[‘l]                   bin-ba‘al (son of Baal) (Benz p.89, Krahmalkov p.106) ph.


22. ‘r[m?]y                  ? perhaps ‘rṭm (vocalisation and meaning uncertain) (Benz 150-153)

                                               (Krahmalkov p.354) or a misspelling ’ršy/’rš? (RES 1316)

                                                                                              The spice-mixer/trader


24. ’b‘lšm..                 This can be Ba‘al-samo (Baal hear me) (Benz p.100, Krahmalkov

                                   p.120) ph,pu. Or it can be Ba‘al-samor (Baal protect me) (Benz p.100,

                                   Krahmalkov p.120).


25. ’šmnb[rk]              ’Ešmun-berek? Esmun blesses.


26. ḥqrh, mšpn            ? (vocalisation and meaning uncertain) (Benz p.125, Krahmalkov

       |                            p.195) ph.


       Rmb‘l                  rm = ram (hb) = high, lofty Baal (Krahmalkov p.444) No personal

       |                                       name? (RES 1303+1359)


       Nps[.]                  ? wellicht: npš =person, emotion, tombstone. Nepeš (hb)

                                               (Krahmalkov p.333)


27. y[.]m[.]                 ? perhaps yḥmlk or y‘ms


      Rmb‘l                   rm = ram (hb) = high, lofty Baal (Krahmalkov p.444) No personal

                                               name? (RES 1303+1359). He is a cultivator of palmtrees.


28. ‘zrb‘l                     ‘Azruba‘al (Baal is his help). Exceedingly common. (Benz p.167-170,

       |                            Krahmalkov p.364) ph,pu. Historical person: Hasdrubal DCPP 211-212.

       |                            Or: ‘Azorba‘al (Baal help!). Historical person: DCPP 338.


      Mtny                     Mittunay (short form of the name-type mtn-DN), Very common name.

       |                            (Benz p.143,146, Krahmalkov p.321) ph,pu. Historical person: Mattan

       |                            DCPP 280-281.


     ’šmn’dny               ’Esmun-’Adoni (Esmun is my lord) (Benz p.70, Krahmalkov p.82.

                                    Historical person: Eshmunadon DCPP 160.


29. ‘bdšmš                  ‘Abdšemeš (servant of Semes)


30. mtl                        ?


     ’b‘l                         ? misspelling ’bb‘l = ’Abi-ba‘al (Baal is my father). (Benz p.54,

                                   Krahmalkov p.28) ph,pu. Historical person: Abibaal DCPP 3-4.


31. ‘bdmlqrt               ‘Abdmilqart (servant of Milqart).


32. ‘bdh’                     ‘Abd-H’(servant of H’) (Benz p.154, Krahmalkov p.355) ph,pu.


33. ‘bdršp                   ‘Abdrešef (servant of Rešef) (Benz p.163) CIS I 93.4, 2628. RES 1353.

                                                                                  1357, 1360. Krug.27.2.


34. grṢd                      Ger-Ṣid (fearer of Sid) (Benz p.107, Krahmalkov p.144) ph.


      Ṣdytn                    Ṣid-yaton (Sid gives) (Benz p.177, Krahmalkov p.412) ph, pu.

       |                                                   Sidiathones


      P‘l’bst                   Pa‘ol-ubast ((u)bastis act) (Benz p.176, Krahmalkov p.403) ph.

                                   He  comes from Tyre, civilian of Heliopolis, liberated by ‘bdmnqrt,

                                   also from Heliopolis. This is a misspelling for ‘bdmlqrt = ‘Abdmilqart

                                    (Benz p155, Krahmalkov p.356) pu.


35. mnqrtḥny              ? monqartḥanni? Misspelling for Milqart-ḥanni (Milqart favour me!)

       |                                       (Benz p.141, Krahmalkov p.292).


       B‘lyḥn                 Ba‘al-yaḥon (Baal be gracious to me/him/you) (Benz p.94,

                                               Krahmalkov p.114) pu.


36. bd’                                    Bodo (short for common name-type bd-DN (in the service of DN).

      |                             (Benz p.74-75, Krahmalkov p.98) ph, pu. In reality he is a servant of

      |                             ḥpṢb‘l from Memphis. ḥepṢiba‘al (Baal is my joy) (Benz  p.125,

      |                             Krahmalkov p.193) ph.


      Mgn                      Magon (short form of the name mgnb‘l (Baal grant!) (Benz p.133-137,

                                   Krahmalkov p.270) Exceedingly common. Historical person: Magon.

                                   DCPP 268-269.


Origin Abydos nr,36

KAI 49, 36 (ph).

’nk mgn bn bd’ šḥpṢb‘l mnp

I am Mago son of Bodo, the son of Hepsibaal, of Memphis.

Krahmalkov p.296

DCPP p.287


37. Ṣdytn                    Ṣid-yaton (Sid gives) (Benz p.177, Krahmalkov p.412) ph, pu.

       |                                                   Sidiathones


      ‘bdbst                   ‘Abd-ubast (servant of [u]bastis)


38.                              Only the date: 3 of the month HYR


39. b‘lšl[m]                 Ba‘al-šillem (Ba‘al grant peace/prosperity!) (Benz p.100,

      |                             Krahmalkov p.119) ph,pu. Ba‘al-šillek is also possible.


     ’rš                          ’Ariš (Requested <of god>). Exceedingly common.


40. ’rš                         ’Ariš (Requested <of god>). Exceedingly common.


      Bd’                       Bodo (short for common name-type bd-DN (in the service of DN).

                                   (Benz p.74-75, Krahmalkov p.98) ph, pu.


41. trt’                        ?


     ’šmn’dn                 ’Ešmun-’Adoni (Esmun is my lord). (Benz p.70, Krahmalkov p.82)

                                   Ph, pu. Historical person: Eshmunadon DCPP 160.


42. bgd’                      ? Persian ?


43. ’bqm                     ’Abi-qom (My <divine> father has arisen). (Benz p.55, Krahmalkov

                                   p.30) ph, pu.


47. ‘bdssm                  ‘Abd-sasom (servant of Sadom) (Benz p.162, Krahmalkov p.357)

      |                             Ph, pu.


     Šlm                        ? Salom, Sallum, Sillem (Benz p.180, Krahmalkov p,464) ph, pu.


48. b‘l[.]Ṣr                  ? Baal of Sour ?


      ‘bdḥ’                     ‘Abd-H’ (servant of ḥ’) (Benz p.154, Krahmalkov p.355) ph.


49. […]ršp                  ? …rešef


      T’[…]                   ?


Not readable: nrs 3,23, 45, 46.


DCPP = E.Lipinski ed. Dictionnaire de la civilisation phénicienne et punique, Brepols, Turnhout, 1992.


Frank L.Benz, Studia Pohl, Rome, Biblical Institue Press, 1972. Studia Pohl: Dissertations scientificae de rebus orientis antique. A cataloque, Grammatical Study and Glossary of Elements.

                   Krahmalkov: PHOENICIAN - PUNIC DICTIONARY

                   Charles R.Krahmalkov. OLA 90. Studia Phoenicia XV.

                   Uitgeverij Peeters en Departement Oosterse studies. Leuven 2000.