woensdag 23 september 2015

Canarische eilanden

The Canary Islands.
The Phoenicians: have they been there or not. This survey tries to give an answer to it. Will it succeed?
Islands of the dogs.

From Cape Juby you seem, in good weather, to be able to see the volcano in the Canary Islands. For some reason Hanno does not mention the islands in his travelogue, or it could be the so-called Gods Wagon at the very end of his travelogue. That is highly unlikely, or the order of the surviving fragments would not match. Let us say: Hanno had clouded weather.
Still, the Phoenicians must have had some knowledge of the islands. From Mogador, although it is still about 600 kilometers to Tarfaya, but Phoenician ships going along the mouths of the oued Massa, oued Noun, oued Draa and Puerto Cansado would have been able to come there. It is also possible from Mogador to make a direct shorter crossing through the Baja-Blanco Dacia and the Islas Salvages to La Palma, as Arcos Pereira Santana assumes that the fleet of Juba II did.
King Juba II was not only a vassal of Rome, but also a scientist who has written several books. He sent two expeditions in that direction between 25 BC and 23 AD.
First of all to Mogador, which he called the purple islands (there were up to even two at that time!). And another one to the Canary Islands. The latter islands get their name from Juba II, as ferocious dogs were found there. The navigators of Juba II found on Gran Canaria the remains of a settlement. This was called the snow island. The question is whether this was a Guanchen settlement or an alternate of the Phoenicians.
Barely 100 kilometers off the continental coast of Tarfaya lies Fuerteventura, the island was called of the goats. All islands have however the more ancient name of "happy" islands.
Ptolemy (c.150 AD) draws on the most far away island of Hierro his prime meridian. In the Middle Ages is a legend of St. Brendan popular. This man would have sailed the Atlantic around 400 AD and he also came to the Canary Islands. To this holy man a mirage was named as the eighth island that appeared periodically at sea.
CANARY ISLANDS Bernd F.Gruschwitz,  Penta language. Spectrum, Utrecht, 1999.  Maps, history, description of each island.

Ptolemy comes with the following names for the various islands.
- Lanzarote : Inaccesa Iunonia Autolala
- Gran Canaria : Canaria
- Fuerteventura : Pluvalia
- La Palma : Capraria
- Tenerife + Hierro : Ninguaria
The promotories on the mainland getting from him the following names:
- Cape Juby : Rysadium prom.
- Cape Bojador : Catharum prom.
Pliny incidentally has again different names.
Pomponius Mela (III 102) knows in any case to make a fantastic story:
"Across [the Atlas] lie the Happy islands with an abundance of fruits that naturally arise and because they always grow after eachother, thus the people feed themselves without the care needed to the fruit and people are happier than anywhere else and they live in cities , in which one operates carefully agriculture. One of these islands is very famous for its unique character from two wells: Who from one taste laugh themselves to death: if you are hit by this, there is only one remedy and that is drinking from the other well. "
In fact Pomponius Mela knows only the islands by name, and he invents only a story around it. We are now in the land of fables. It is time to return to some facts.
This is possible through the 4th conference of the CEFYP Los Fenicios y el Atlantico (2008). That contains several articles concerning the Canaries in the context of antiquity.
POMPONIUS MELA Kreuzfahrt durch die Alte Welt. The chorographia libri tres. Kai Bodersen. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt. 1994. The lyrics with notes.

4th conference of the CEFYP Los Fenicios y el Atlantico (2008):
La navigazione antica lungo le costa atlantiche dell'Africa e verso le Isole Canarie Stefano Medas for instance, highlights the following issues:
1.De graffito on the rock of El Cerado (Garafia) on the island of Palma. The drawing is of Mederos / Escribano (1999). There are two ships depicted, one a tall ship (trireme / pentekonter?) And the other appears to be a large merchant ship.
Now is hereby given a chronological indication of "Mycenaean-Archaic," but it just seems to me to be Phoenician ships, also called “horses”. Perhaps from Gadir.
The indigenous people apparently sees two types of vessels surfacing for their island. Actually, exactly as is displayed on the Assyrian relief of Luli in the Middle East. They are the long rowing boats and round freighters. We see that comes back in the following pictures.
Los Fenicios Y EL ATLANTICO R.Gonzalez Anton, F.Lopez Pardo, V Pena Romo. Centro de estudios y Fenicios Punicos, Madrid 2008. Atlantic voyages.

2. See the following drawings: Las Naves the kerné (II). Navegando por el Atlántico durante la proto historian y la Antigüedad / Victor Ayuso M.Guerrero.
Graffito to Barranco Hondo (Tenerife) according Atoche Peña / Ramirez Rodriguez (2001).
Petroglyph "La Negrita".
Drawing of the rock image to Adonai (!), Santa Cruz de Tenerife (according Mederos / Escribano).
Again we see ships in these drawings, that belong to the Mediterranean.

3.La Explotacion de la sal and los mares de Canarias durante la Atigüedad. Las Salinas y saladeros the Rasca (Tenerife) / del Carmen del Arco Aguilat and others.
Who have been here working? Guanchen, Phoenicians, Romans or Punics?
The research focuses on two locations:
- Rasca (South Tenerife). Sector 1 has a complete saltfactory. Sector 2 contains a simple salt working place. We find fish-shaped images.
- El Rio (North Lanzarote) including the channel to the isle La Graciosa. El Rio appears to be a settlement Rubicon, in which Guanchen participate and which will later be continued by the Romans. We also find a kind of "Tanit" sign.
This study is especially botanical research. A real stance on the presence of a Phoenician and Punic settlement, as one dares not explicitly.

4.Such a stance comes to Pablo Atoche Peña in his "Las culturas Protohistóricas Canarias en el contexto del Desarollo cultural mediteraneo: Propuesta the fasificación."
1st stage discovery, colonization and offices
1a. Phoenician phase (10th-6th century BC): Colonization of La Palma and Lanzarote
1b. Punic phase (6th-2nd century BC): Atlantic trade expansion
Gap and abandoning
1c. Roman phase (1st century BC - 3rd century AD): Economic intensification
Integration of agricultural and fish production
Renewed abandoning

The Phoenicians have a temporary settlement in Lanzarote. Almost simultaneously also settle tribes from the mainland to the islands. The Phoenicians seem to have even been the instigators of this migration. In the Punic period there are Liby-Phoenicians involved. Rubicon on Lanzarote is permanently in use.
In the second half of the 2nd century BC collapsed the fragile Punic colonizationsystem and Guanchen are for a  short time all alone, Then the Romans will take over the whole establihment.

5.Pesquerias Punico-gaditanas y romanas republicanas the tunidos: el Mar de Calmas de las Islas Canarias (300-20 BC) / Alfreda Mederos Mantina + Gabriel Escribano Cobo.
The last contribution to the 4th conference of the CEFYP in 2008 deals with fishing (tuna) around the Canary Islands. Again it is clear that Punic vessels (mainly from Gadir) have contributed to the development of the Canary Islands in ancient times.
They also went ashore and that happened mostly in Buena Vista (Tenerife) and Cueva de las Palomas (Tenerife). We encounter from 400 BC native amphorae, created on the model of Punic amphorae (Carmona, Cadiz, El Tiñosa).

In the Canary Islands became a lichen that sustainable lakmoesverven could be prepared. The purple snail comes in several places on the Mediterranean coast, but however this special moss is found almost nowhere else but in the Canaries. Thus, the plant contributed to the superioty of the Phoenician dyers, but the Canaries had to offer even more: here the dragon's blood tree grew. This tree severed a precious, perfect to use as red pigment, resin type off. And then there were so fishing areas where, for example tuna was caught. The yields were very high in many ways. It comes as no surprise and no more doubt that the Canary Islands were visited by the Phoenicians and Punics.

The book "Canarias y el Africa Antigua" by Antonio Tejera gives us even more information, such as the natives who came from the Canary Islands, where the Phoenicians / Punics must have played a role.
El Hierro? ← Caprariensis from Numidia
La Palma ← Ben Hawara (Auaritos) from Mauritania
La Gomera ← Ghmara from Metagonia
Tenerife ← Cinithi (Chinet) from Tripolitania
Gran Canaria ← Canarii from Mauritania
Fuerteventura ← Abanni (Erbania) from Numidia
Lanzarote ← Maxies (Maoh) from Byzacium)
If so, then they came largely from areas controlled by Carthage. Well, it is but a supposed migration by Antonio Tejera Gaspar, but there are decent arguments behind.

The so-called Tanit sign has already been recalled from Pozo de la Cruz (Rubicon, Yaiza, Lanzarote). The "sign" is not quite normal with respect to the base, but it is definitely the so-called Tanit sign. The head is separate from the body and that occured to my knowledge, nowhere else. This could well be the key, why the sign does not represent Tanit, but something entirely different.
Antonio Tejera Gaspar, Maria Esther Chavez Alvarez, Marian Montesdeoca. Taller de Historia 41. Gran Canaria, April 2006.

A borderline case. Lanzarote is Tenésera found Libysch-Canaanite alphabet of the "Bu Njem". Previously we have seen that the Maxyes (or at least a portion thereof) from Byzacium moved to Lanzarote. Now is Bu Njem in neighboring Tripolitania and from which region the Cinithi came to Tenerife.
There then there are several memorials (with native characters and figures), the mountain shrines and sacrificial sites and botanical arrangements, indicating relations with the mainland, Iberia and for sure also with the Phoenicians and Punics.
On several islands Guanche several former Numidian stone pictographs and strange spiral figures bequeathed. A relationship with the Phoenicians is, however, not been demonstrated thereby.

Canary Islands Merian 4 - XXXIV / C Magazine with 27 articles.
Book 314: CANARIAS Y EL AFRICA Antigua Antonio Tejera Gaspar, Maria Esther Chavez Alvarez, Marian Montesdeoca. Taller de Historia 41. Gran Canaria, April 2006.
Overall, there are too many clues and even some evidence that the Phoenicians and Punics indeed the Canaries have known. There is even talk of a settlement in Lanzarote, whether or not permanent. And then I'm just very cautious in my conclusions. Because we will not meet a mature Phoenician / Punic settlement with a sanctuary, harbor, etc. Even a necropolis is not granted to us so far. However, it is indisputable that they have exploited the islands in different ways. It is not clear how their relationship with the indigenous population to the extent that was present. In any case, the Guanchen-language has very little connections with the Phoenician language writing. Except for fish, salt, moss, resin, wood and food there was not more to get there. That was good enough, but on the mainland the possibilities were still bigger. Hence, they also went on there.
They were probably some paltry contacts between the Phoenicians and the Guanches. Perhaps the Guanches are also later degenerated. In knowing the 15th / 16th century AD they are not able to navigate at sea (anymore). They also have no proper ships then.
They appear only to bake pottery by hand. The amphorae found in antiquity were brought there by others either they were then also handmade by the Guanches. It may also be that the Guanches the turntable method for pottery then still had learned from the Phoenicians, but that knowledge in the course of time has been lost.
Finally, go back to the role played by Juba II to the rediscovery of the Canaries. This king of Mauritania says that he is the grandson of the sister of a general Hannibal in the army of Juba I (his father). It is not so improbable that he had Punic blood in the veins. He was an educated man who had great knowledge of the past. It becomes less surprising, why he went to the Canary Islands and Mogador. He writes for instance a book on the Canary plant Euphorbia (spurge).