PILLARS II (end of the monopoly in sight).
The maritime monopoly of the Phoenicians lasting some 500 years, if the traditional foundations of
Cadiz, Lixus and are true, is slowly
coming to an end. So far the Phoenician triangle of Carthage-Sicily-Sardinia
was practically impregnable and closed the Straits of Gibraltar to Greek
competition. But the Phoceans and especially Masalia (Marseille) tried to
penetrate more and more from the north. They went along to east-coast of Utica
to the south (Ampurias, Alonae, Artemision, Hemeroskopeion, Mainake?). And a
daring Masilian captain went even further. Spain
Ps.Scylax 4th century BC
Some Greek sailor managed to break through the blockade and researched the
Western Europe coasts. He provides more accurate
informationabout the pillars, but not very much.
“The low Pillar is in
Libya and the high one lies in Europe.
They are separated from each other by a day-long voyage.” He mentions also
the place Abini or Apini.
By now, the Phoenicians, Heracles, Melqart, and indirectly the founding of Gadir, Lixus and
mixed up in one and the same block of Greek legends. Utica
Eratosthenes 3rd century BC
Abilyx is a mountain that lies in Metagonium, country of a nomadic tribe. According to Strabo he also mentions the places Apini and Abiluka. The statements of Eratosthenes are done on information from Ephorus.
Artemidorus 2nd century BC
He talks about two islands near the pillars. He speaks of Hera’s
Island and her temple, and he
says there is a second isle. These islands could be Perejil near Ceuta and Isla Cabrita near . Algeciras